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ADDITIONAL STATISTICS, REFERENCES, AND FURTHER READING:

By Anne Madden, PhD research microbiologist who conducts investigations on the microorganisms that live in our environment and is a contributing author for SterilStay. 

 

 Additional Statistics: 

 

Productivity losses linked to absenteeism cost employers $225.8 Billion per year.

Source: Centers for Disease Control, International Monetary Fund.

https://www.cdcfoundation.org/pr/2015/worker-illness-and-injury-costs-us-employers-225-billion-annually 

 

 

Cost to employers of people going to work when they’re sick ~$150 Billion per year.

Source: Harvard Business Review

https://www.cdcfoundation.org/pr/2015/worker-illness-and-injury-costs-us-employers-225-billion-annually 

 

Estimated economic cost to Americans of the flu: $5.8 Billion per year

Source: Ozawa S, Portnoy A, Getaneh H, Clark S, Knoll M, Bishai D, Yang HK, Patwardhan PD. 2016. Modeling the economic burden of adult vaccine-preventable disease in the United States. Health Affairs. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0462 

 

Estimated economic cost to Americans of Community Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): $1.4-13.8 Billion per year

Source: Lee BY, Singh A, David MZ, Bartsch SM, Slayton RB, Huang SS, Zimmer SM, Potter MA, Macal CM, Lauderdale DS, Miller LG, Daum RS. 2013. The economic burden of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 19(6): 528-536.

 

Estimated economic cost to Americans of non-flu respiratory infections: $40 Billion per year

Source: Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, Sarnes M. 2003. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Arch. Intern. Med. 163(4): 487-494.

 

 

References and Further Reading:

 

Boone SA, and Charles PG. 2007. Significance of Fomites in the Spread of Respiratory and Enteric Viral Diseases. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73(6): 1687-1698.

http://aem.asm.org/content/73/6/1687.full 

 

Vaglenov KA. 2014. Survival and Transmission of selected pathogens on airplane cabin surfaces and selection of phages specific for Campylobacter jejuni. Doctoral Dissertation. Auburn University.

 

Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. 2016. Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. PLOS Biology. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533 

 

Rusin P, Maxwell S, Gerba C. 2002. Comparative surface-to-hand and fingertip-to-mouth transfer efficiency of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, phage. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 93: 585-592. 

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