ADDITIONAL STATISTICS, REFERENCES, AND FURTHER READING:
By Anne Madden, PhD research microbiologist who conducts investigations on the microorganisms that live in our environment and is a contributing author for SterilStay.
Productivity losses linked to absenteeism cost employers $225.8 Billion per year.
Source: Centers for Disease Control, International Monetary Fund.
Cost to employers of people going to work when they’re sick ~$150 Billion per year.
Source: Harvard Business Review
Estimated economic cost to Americans of the flu: $5.8 Billion per year
Source: Ozawa S, Portnoy A, Getaneh H, Clark S, Knoll M, Bishai D, Yang HK, Patwardhan PD. 2016. Modeling the economic burden of adult vaccine-preventable disease in the United States. Health Affairs. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0462
Estimated economic cost to Americans of Community Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): $1.4-13.8 Billion per year
Source: Lee BY, Singh A, David MZ, Bartsch SM, Slayton RB, Huang SS, Zimmer SM, Potter MA, Macal CM, Lauderdale DS, Miller LG, Daum RS. 2013. The economic burden of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 19(6): 528-536.
Estimated economic cost to Americans of non-flu respiratory infections: $40 Billion per year
Source: Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, Sarnes M. 2003. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Arch. Intern. Med. 163(4): 487-494.
References and Further Reading:
Boone SA, and Charles PG. 2007. Significance of Fomites in the Spread of Respiratory and Enteric Viral Diseases. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73(6): 1687-1698.
Vaglenov KA. 2014. Survival and Transmission of selected pathogens on airplane cabin surfaces and selection of phages specific for Campylobacter jejuni. Doctoral Dissertation. Auburn University.
Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. 2016. Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. PLOS Biology. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533
Rusin P, Maxwell S, Gerba C. 2002. Comparative surface-to-hand and fingertip-to-mouth transfer efficiency of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, phage. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 93: 585-592.